Throughout history, the mzee yusuf ft hadija kopa pastoral tribes of the Russian Steppes have descended on the seats of civilization in Europe and the Middle East.
In Saratov on the Lower Volga River in Russia, up to 1 in between 3 and 4 people possess this distinctive marker. It is also notable in Ashkenazi Jews, certain Mongols and some Turks. Minimal frequencies occur, on the other hand, in Asians like the Chinese or Indians. One minor branch is found in Malaysia and Australian Aboriginals, pointing to the relatedness of all humans. Another expansion centered on Egypt and became prominent among Berbers. It ran in the pharaohs—perhaps a vestige of the conquest of Egypt by a horse-bound warrior culture around BCE.
This same timeframe corresponds with a general epoch in world history marking a widespread switch from female-centered societies and the Goddess religion to patriarchy and a male pantheon. Between 2 and 5 percent of Europeans on average possess this marker, depending on how far east their main ancestry originates. The Scythian Gene follows the spread of the horse, metal weapons and Indo-European languages.
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What is the Iberian Peninsula: DNA Ethnicity
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Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. The Scythian Gene. The Scythian Gene Throughout history, the wandering pastoral tribes of the Russian Steppes have descended on the seats of civilization in Europe and the Middle East.
By contrast, the name of Dacianswhatever the origin of the name, was used by the more western tribes who adjoined the Pannonians and therefore first became known to the Romans. The ethnographic name Daci is found under various forms within ancient sources. Latins used the forms DavusDacusand a derived form Dacisci Vopiscus and inscriptions. Scholars have suggested that there were links between the two peoples since ancient times.
By the end of the first century AD, all the inhabitants of the lands which now form Romania were known to the Romans as Daci, with the exception of some Celtic and Germanic tribes who infiltrated from the west, and Sarmatian and related people from the east.
Origin of the Albanians
The name Dacior "Dacians" is a collective ethnonym. In the 1st century AD, Strabo suggested that its stem formed a name previously borne by slaves: Greek Daos, Latin Davus -k- is a known suffix in Indo-European ethnic names. Sanskrit dasaBactrian daonha.
Bactrian daqyudanhu "canton". Since the 19th century, many scholars have proposed an etymological link between the endonym of the Dacians and wolves. However, according to Romanian historian and archaeologist Alexandru Vulpethe Dacian etymology explained by daos "wolf" has little plausibility, as the transformation of daos into dakos is phonetically improbable and the Draco standard was not unique to Dacians.
He thus dismisses it as folk etymology. Russu Mircea Eliade attempted, in his book From Zalmoxis to Genghis Khanto give a mythological foundation to an alleged special relation between Dacians and the wolves: . Evidence of proto-Thracians or proto-Dacians in the prehistoric period depends on the remains of material culture.
It is generally proposed that a proto-Dacian or proto-Thracian people developed from a mixture of indigenous peoples and Indo-Europeans from the time of Proto-Indo-European expansion in the Early Bronze Age 3,—3, BC  when the latter, around BC, conquered the indigenous peoples.
Indo-Europeanization was complete by the beginning of the Bronze Age. The people of that time are best described as proto-Thracians, which later developed in the Iron Age into Danubian-Carpathian Geto-Dacians as well as Thracians of the eastern Balkan Peninsula. Alexander the Great attacked the Getae in BC on the lower Danube, but by BC they had formed a state founded on a military democracy, and began a period of conquest.
The Dacians drove the Boii south across the Danube and out of their territory, at which point the Boii abandoned any further plans for invasion. North of the Danube, Dacians occupied [ when? Thraco-Dacian or Thracian and Daco-Mysian [ which?
This view is supported by R. Solta, who says that Thracian and Dacian are very closely related languages. The Dacians are generally considered [ by whom? Another variety that has sometimes been recognized [ by whom?
List of rulers of Thrace and Dacia
Dacian culture is mostly followed through Roman sources. Ample evidence suggests that they were a regional power in and around the city of Sarmizegetusa. Sarmizegetusa was their political and spiritual capital.
The ruined city lies high in the mountains of central Romania. Vladimir Georgiev disputes that Dacian and Thracian were closely related for various reasons, most notably that Dacian and Moesian town names commonly end with the suffix - DAVAwhile towns in Thrace proper i.
According to Georgiev, the language spoken by the ethnic Dacians should be classified as "Daco-Moesian" and regarded as distinct from Thracian. Georgiev also claimed that names from approximately Roman Dacia and Moesia show different and generally less extensive changes in Indo-European consonants and vowels than those found in Thrace itself. However, the evidence seems to indicate divergence of a Thraco-Dacian language into northern and southern groups of dialects, not so different as to qualify as separate languages.The Thracian s were advanced in metalworking and in horsemanship.
They intermingled with the Greeks and gave them the Dionysian and Orphean cults, which later became so important in…. The Bulgars, who established the first Bulgarian state informed another component.
With the gradual obliteration of fragmented Slavic tribes, Bulgars and Slavs coalesced into a unified people…. Evidence of human habitation in the area of Bulgaria dates from sometime within the Middle Paleolithic Period Old Stone Age;to 40, bce.
The Dacians were of Thracian stock and, among the Thracian successor peoples in the region, were most akin to the Getae.
Indeed, the similarities between the groups led the Greek historian Herodotus to label both as Getae, while the Romans referred to all these populations as Dacians. They first…. The Greek historian Herodotus, writing in the 5th century bcecalled these people.
Although these historians characterized the Thracian s as primitive partly because they lived in simple, open villages, the Thracian s in….
Thracian ancient people. Learn about this topic in these articles: Balkans.The easiest way to explain this is to assume that Etruscans are derived from first wave LBK farmers, while Sardinians are derived from first wave CP farmers that while similar to each other vis-a-vis modern populations were still derived from quite genetically distinct populations. Why is Sardinia so special for comparisons? Only 28 individuals, including 16 men were tested, and as far as I know, there was no verification of genealogical pedigree that's now often done.
This from a population of over 1. Sardinia is no more unique than anywhere else in the region. If the study didn't study for the y-dna forget about it. Lazy academics cant even say the haplogroup. Andrew: Excellent points. But careful. By pointing out the clear ancientness of Etruscans, you run the risk of running afoul from the "Everything Ancient storytellers said was right" and the "Italians Must All Be Exotic" crowds.
Mark D: Actually, Sardinians have been shown, both by Cavalli Sforza and others, to be, in layman's terms, so different from other Europeans that they are almost a separate "race. Akin to Iceman, Gok4 and Stuttgart Lazaridis et al The isolation of Sardinians towards modern day Europeans and any other groups shows that this archaic feature is no longer shared by any modern groups and Sardinians remain closest to Neolithic Europeans.
The Etuscans arrived at that time from the general vicinity of the Swiss Alps where they left behind the kindred Raetic people who do not share of language or ethnicity of the people who now live in the same geographic area where they once did who speak the modern Raetic language which is a Romance language derived from Latin.
However, evidence of Loschbour- or Brana 1- like HG in the Balkan is still missing, and Bulgarian K8 rather correlates with a Russian intrusion - not so strange given the northern cultural links of Thracians. Hence also the "outrageous" arrow of Figure 4C pointing from central Europe to Sardinia, that doesn't seem to support the traditional assumption on how the Neolithic reached the western Mediterranean bassin by demic diffusion however, read the nuances made by Cunliffe.
Since both assumptions seem to be wrong and unsupported by the Sardinian evidence, I gather the EEF component should be considered indigenous in southern Europe. That rings a bell. The most interesting difference however is the complete different order of the letters in the alphabet plus the concept of writing one line from left to right and the next from right to left.
Any contact of Germanic people with Etruscans would need the Etruscans to have lived further north, right? Also, they should have been the Celts between them?
On the whole he resembles Gok4; he has just a little more of the Palestinian, Druze and Mozabite components, and a little less of the Sardinian component, what's natural, since he was closer to the entry point of the non-European early farmers. These results, if valid, are very interesting, also regarding the question of IE origins, and they give me food for thought.Bulgaria is located in the eastern region of the Balkan Peninsula, overlooking the Black Sea.
Bulgaria had some of the earliest farming sites, and also had early forms of metallurgy, incorporating copper. The earliest traces of human life date back to Paleolithic and Mesolithic times, this has been supported by brilliant cave drawings and the flint tools used by primitive man, pre-homo sapiens. Homo sapiens emergence is credited as years after the initial appearance, settling in the lands between Mesopotamia and Palestine.
Bulgaria being in a fertile place, with the increasing change from hunter-gatherer to agriculture led to many groups settling in the region. The rise of Metallurgy gave a further boost in human civilization development, showing export of copper, therefore suggesting some form of trade.
Population increase was caused by improved living condition and this resulted in clashes due to land and ore deposits.
The Thracians, became the dominant group, their territory not only comprised of modern day Bulgaria but also Romania, Eastern Serbia, Northwest Turkey and Northeast Greece. However, much of their information has come from secondary sources, Hellenians, and Romans. Thracian economy involved the production of food, raw materials and other goods that were exported after they met local demands. Trade routes were via land and sea as well, spanning as far as North Africa.
The Romans soon came afterward after the decline of the Thracian influence over the territory and surrounding regions, and ruled for quite some time until local rebellions and tribal revolts coupled by internal roman squabbles led to the decline and evidently rise of the tribes that would make up Bulgaria and would remain till modern times. Haplogroup I-L I2a is low moderately frequent with high levels being found in Ukrainian and all South Slavic region other than in Slovenia.
This haplogroup descended from the macro-haplogroup I, and the Levant from its immediate ancestor macro-haplogroup IJ. Its exclusiveness and patch-wise distribution within Europe suggest early entry into Europe during the Paleolithic era.
Haplogroup I-M is the most frequent haplotype present in all Balkan populations, characterized by star-shaped radiation network. This network topology, together with the age estimates the genetic record to be of Balkan Mesolithic foragers and their expansion soon after the adoption of agriculture.
Haplogroup E-V68 is present at low-moderate frequencies. Haplogroup E-V13 displays a star-like radiation network, from a central haplotype found in the Balkans. This pattern points to a recent rapid expansion into the Balkans. The oldest age present in the Balkans dates back to Mesolithic era and is found in Western Bulgaria.
Varna Man and the Wealthiest Grave of the 5th Millennium BC
This indicates that haplogroup E-V13 was already present if not originated in Mesolithic times in Western Bulgaria from where it underwent expansion. During the Bronze Age, the subsequent path into Europe and major settlement is thought to have happened. R1a and R1b major clades are found at low frequencies in Europe.
The R1a frequency could probably be the result of the descendants of prehistoric eastern European tribes; the Balto-Slavs, and possibly the Thracians. However, all branches are consistently outnumbered by M, in the whole eastern and central Bulgaria region. M is the dominant R1a clade in the regions corresponding to areas of Bulgarian dialects that are most similar to the Polish dialects, the eastern and Slavic dialects in modern day Greece.
Haplogroup R-M R1bpresent in Bulgarians at a frequency of This haplogroup is most frequent around Ural and Chad, as well as in most of Western Europe and adjacent islands. R1b entry into Europe is thought to be through the Balkans. Haplogroup J-M J2 is found in low frequency but significantly in high levels among the Hungarians, Romanians, Bosniaks, Austrians and Italians, while dominated in high frequency in Anatolia and the surrounding regions.
While its origin is north of the Levant, its current pattern directly reflects recent Copper and Bronze Age events that arose from the Aegean being connected to western Anatolia in addition to Greek and Phoenician Mediterranean colonization. The prevailing is the J2a, L26 deep subclade, it is further divided. Haplogroup J M shows a central network with the most frequency, being widespread in the Southern Balkans region.
This is likely a result of a rapid Neolithic era expansion in Asia Minor. Bulgaria shows a very similar mtDNA profile to other European countries. A majority of the U-carriers stem from U5 and U4.In the s, archaeologists in Bulgaria stumbled upon a vast Copper Age necropolis from the 5 th millennium BC containing the oldest golden artifacts ever discovered near the modern-day city of Varna. But it was not until they reached grave 43 that they realized the real significance of the finding.
Inside burial 43 were the remains of a high status male and unfathomable riches — more gold was found within this burial than in the entire rest of the world in that period. Most people have heard of the great civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley, which are all noted for being the earliest known civilizations to feature urbanization, organized administration, and cultural innovation. But few have heard of the mysterious civilization that emerged on the shores of lakes of the Black Sea some 7, years ago in Bulgaria.
The Varna culture, as it has come to be known, was not a small and inconsequential society that emerged in a little corner of Bulgaria and disappeared quickly into the pages of history. Rather, it was an amazingly advanced civilization, more ancient than the empires of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and the first known culture to craft golden artifacts.
Varna is also now home to the largest known prehistoric necropolis in south-eastern Europe, which reflects a richness in cultural practices, complex funerary rites, an ancient belief system, and the capacity to produce exquisite and expertly-crafted goods. It has come to be known as the cradle of civilization in Europe. Evidence suggests that it was between and BC, when gold smithing first started in Varna.
As advances were made, and craftsmen mastered metallurgy of copper and gold, the inhabitants now had something extremely valuable to trade. Increased contacts with neighbours both north and south eventually opened up trade relations within the Black Sea and Mediterranean region, which was of great importance for the development of the society. The deep bay, along which the settlements of Varna, provided a comfortable harbor for ships sailing across the Black Sea and Varna became a prosperous trading center.
Increased trading activity allowed the metallurgists to accumulate wealth and very quickly, a societal gap developed with metallurgists at the top, followed by merchants in the middle, and farmers making up the lower class. Incredible discoveries made at a nearby cemetery also suggest that Varna had powerful rulers or kings — but we will come back to that.
And so, the foundations had been laid for the emergence of a powerful and flourishing culture, whose influence permeated the whole of Europe for thousands of years to come. Then an incredible chance discovery came to light, that made headlines around the world. In October,excavator operator Raycho Marinov stumbled upon a vast Copper Age necropolis containing the oldest gold artifacts ever discovered.
It was to become one of the most important archaeological discoveries ever made in Bulgaria. Extensive excavations were launched under the direction of Mihail Lazarov — and Ivan Ivanov —revealing for the first time the magnificent civilization of Varna. Other precious relics found within the graves included copper, high-quality flint, stone tools, jewellery, shells of Mediterranean mollusks, pottery, obsidian blades, and beads.
Golden objects found in the necropolis. Source: Wikipedia. Analysis of the graves revealed that the Varna culture had a highly structured society — elite members of society were buried in shrouds with gold ornaments sewn into the cloth wrappings and their graves were laden with treasures, including gold ornaments, heavy copper axes, elegant finery, and richly decorated ceramics, while others had simple burials with few grave goods. While there were many elite burials uncovered, there was one in particular that stood out amongst the rest — grave The male was buried with a scepter — a symbol of high rank or spiritual power — and wore a sheath of solid gold over his penis.
The burial is incredibly significant as it is the first known elite male burial in Europe. Prior to this, it was the women and children who received the most elaborate burials. Marija Gimbutas, a Lithuanian-American archaeologist, who was well-known for her claims that Neolithic sites across Europe provided evidence for matriarchal pre-Indo-European societies, suggested that it was the end of the 5 th millennium BC when the transition to male dominance began in Europe.
Indeed, in the Varna culture, it was observed that around this time, men started to get the better posthumous treatment. A burial at Varna, with some of the world's oldest gold jewellery. The burials in the Varna necropolis have also offered a lot more than the precious artifacts found within them and discoveries relating to social hierarchies; the features of the graves have also provided key insights into the religious beliefs and complex funerary practices of this ancient civilization. It became apparent to researchers that the males and females were laid out in different positions within the graves — males were laid out on their backs, while females were placed in a foetal position.
Some of these symbolic graves, or cenotaphs, also contained human-sized masks made of unbaked clay placed in the position where the head would have been. Human-sized clay head found at Varna necropolis. Photo source. The graves contained the clay masks were also found to contain gold amulets in the shape of women placed in the position where the neck would have been.
These amulets, associated with pregnancy and childbirth, indicate that the 'burials' were those of females. Further evidence of this is the fact that there were no battle-axes found in these cenotaphs, but each of them had a copper pin, a flint knife and a spindle whorl. Replica of a symbolical burial of an antropomorphous face made from clay.The name Europe first referred to Thrace proper, prior to the term vastly extending to refer to its modern concept.
In Turkey, it is commonly referred to as RumeliLand of the Romansowing to this region being the last part of the Eastern Roman Empire that was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. In terms of ancient Greek mythology the name appears to derive from the heroine and sorceress Thracewho was the daughter of Oceanus and Parthenope, and sister of Europa. The historical boundaries of Thrace have varied. The ancient Greeks employed the term "Thrace" to refer to all of the territory which lay north of Thessaly inhabited by the Thracians a region which "had no definite boundaries" and to which other regions like Macedonia and even Scythia were added.
After the Macedonian conquest, this region's former border with Macedonia was shifted from the Struma River to the Mesta River. Henceforth, classical Thrace referred only to the tract of land largely covering the same extent of space as the modern geographical region. The medieval Byzantine theme of Thrace contained only what today is East Thrace.
Ancient Greek mythology provides the Thracians with a mythical ancestor Thraxthe son of the war-god Areswho was said to reside in Thrace. Later in the IliadRhesusanother Thracian king, makes an appearance.
Cisseusfather-in-law to the Trojan elder Antenoris also given as a Thracian king. Homeric Thrace was vaguely defined, and stretched from the River Axios in the west to the Hellespont and Black Sea in the east. The Catalogue of Ships mentions three separate contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from Aenus ; Cicones led by Euphemusfrom southern Thrace, near Ismaros ; and from the city of Sestuson the Thracian northern side of the Hellespont, which formed part of the contingent led by Asius.
Thrace is mentioned in Ovid 's Metamorphosesin the episode of PhilomelaProcneand Tereus : Tereus, the King of Thrace, lusts after his sister-in-law, Philomela. He kidnaps her, holds her captive, rapes her, and cuts out her tongue.
Philomela manages to get free, however. She and her sister, Procne, plot to get revenge, by killing her son Itys by Tereus and serving him to his father for dinner. At the end of the myth, all three turn into birds — Procne into a swallowPhilomela into a nightingaleand Tereus into a hoopoe.
The Dicaea city in Thrace was named after, the son of PoseidonDicaeus. The indigenous population of Thrace was a people called the Thraciansdivided into numerous tribal groups. The region was controlled by the Persian Empire at its greatest extent,  and Thracian soldiers were known to be used in the Persian armies.
Later on, Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler Alexander the Great when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts Thrace, during the invasion of the Persian Empire itself.